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22 April 2017

Characteristics of the ideal teacher


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Teacher

A TEACHER plays a pivotal role in the process of education. Theoretically, no teacher will ever become totally ideal. Becoming totally ideal would mean that the teacher has achieved such a level of perfection that she or he no longer requires further effort toward improvement and, consequently, growth would be checked.

An ideal teacher usually possesses these characteristics: he has unassailable command on his subjects. He knows fully the contents of the subjects which he has to teach. Truly exceptional teachers are scholars and are constantly reading and upgrading themselves in their subject. The tone of expression of the ideal teacher is not gruff, irksome and morose but is pleasant.

An ideal teacher has a good sense of humour/smiles. But this fun is not of impolite nature. An ideal teacher has the highest degree of integrity. An ideal teacher is susceptible to adaptation or modification.
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Being flexible means that if students are not interested in learning a new or even a new good lesson due to some reasons, then he is not recalcitrant regarding straightway teaching of the lesson. Rather he talks about problems that have arisen in the classroom and eventually gets back to the lesson.

An ideal teacher is concise and clear in both oral and written expression in the classroom. An ideal teacher is patient. Being patient is often expressed as being diligent or persevering.

Learners are genius, gifted, mentally retarded, dyslexic, emotionally disturbed and some patience is required for employing carefully individual teaching - learning technique for individual learner. Only in this way, bits of progress can be observed day to day.

An ideal teacher is self-confident. The ideal teacher is a model of self-confidence. It is a source of great pleasure and they show it in their facial expression and in their positive attitude around the school. People always seem to have time to talk to a colleague or to do something extra for the school or the staff. One key to be upbear is having a good self-concept.

An ideal teacher is open. This trait is related with willingness of the teacher to share happiness about his own life to illustrate a point or share how they feel about a given situation. An ideal teacher is diversified with regard to his preparation. This means that the teacher not only focuses on specific areas but has considerable command on the related subjects. This diversification trait will enable him to elaborate and illustrate the subjects in more persuasive manner.

The ideal teacher is an excellent role model. Being a good role model to all the children, teacher whatsoever teaches is one of the greatest contributions he can make to society.

An ideal teacher is capable of relating theory with practice. In textbooks, there are suggestions for doing things individually or as a group to enhance interest and motivation in teaching. Learners can display these activities, if their teacher is capable of interrelating the theory in practice.

An ideal teacher has good personal hygiene and is well groomed. He is always neat, clean, and wears type of clothing that is acceptable in the school building in which he teaches.

He helps students having difficulties. Furthermore, he or she is disciplined, cooperative, friendly with his colleagues and obedient to the head of the institution.

https://www.dawn.com

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Activities for Building Student Character



In an already packed school day, finding time for character education can be a challenge. Most of these ideas can be worked seamlessly into the school day to build student character and to develop a sense of community in your school.
With all of the things that your school does for its students, how does it address one of its primary objectives--not just teaching students, but helping them to become good people? Every school can set a tone of honesty, respect, and kindness toward others. To help you get started, explore these ideas.
Pillars of Character
The first and most important advice for those who want to build character in students--and a sense of community in their school--is to focus on the. These "pillars"-- identified by the Josephson Institute of Ethics--are trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring, and citizenship. Other resources sometimes also include three additional qualities: courage, diligence, and integrity.
The Cleveland County Schools of North Carolina recommend emphasizing one trait of good character each month, with bulletin boards, writing assignments, and morning announcements. Students may pen slogans about the trait of the month, and a special section of the library might be designed to offer students easy access to the biographies and other stories of people who exemplify the best of each trait.
The following ideas are organized by the trait they most closely address. Because the traits are interrelated, the activities often support more than one aspect of good character.
1.    Trustworthiness
In Character Count's Values Jar activity, students are rewarded with a marble placed in a jar when one (or more) of them is spotted "practicing a pillar." Emphasis is on the quality of the act, not on quantity. The group is rewarded with a special treat when the jar is filled. Trustworthiness plays an especially important role in this project because the acts that are recognized must be authentic and well meaning, not exclusively the means to an end.
 

Have the students illustrate the Josephson Institute's aspects of trustworthiness through art. These aspects are honesty (in what you say and do), integrity, reliability, and loyalty. Post their reflections on these concepts with the artwork around the school.
Establish a "board game bank" to which students donate board games, especially those that reinforce strategy skills and educational concepts. Students can borrow games overnight or for weekends. Students may operate the bank and track its progress.
The Center for Character Development shares a lesson called Building Trustworthiness that uses a wall built of empty shoeboxes to represent the aspects of character and illustrate the value of each pillar. This can be used to introduce the concepts, and then the school might establish a "wall of character"--with shoeboxes or in paper form on a bulletin board -- that contains specific acts of character that groups of students have performed.
2.    Respect
Every teacher at one time or another has cringed at the personalities children choose to admire. The K-12 Giraffe Heroes Program provides a free lesson that opens students eyes to the true heroes of our world--people who pursue just causes, often at great personal cost and risk. Use the lesson to encourage students to identify appropriate heroes. Then invite them to design posters about the individuals. They may include facts, quotes, and illustrations. Create a display of the posters in a "hall of achievement."
Organize a corps of peer helpers for new students. These helpers may serve as friends or even tutors. They might generate "guides" to the school for newcomers, with rules, a map, insider "tips," important dates to remember, and more.
Invite guests to speak about positive character traits. Students may ask informed, thoughtful questions. The experience will reinforce the importance of good manners and respectful tone when dealing with guests and authority figures.
Bullying shows a complete disregard for the respect of others, and often their property. Give students the help they need to avoid conflict and handle it when it does occur. Sharing advice in the form of a message board in a common area, a newsletter, or in announcements can be effective. For some suggestions about what kids need to know, see Bullying Advice for Kids. The PBS resource It's My Life also offers information about bullies in a kid-friendly form. These resources even help those who bully to identify themselves and alter their behavior.
3.    Responsibility
Ask students to write pledges for the character traits that describe how they will fulfill their promise to follow each pillar. Then have them sign the pledges. Keep the signed pledges on file and refer to them when behavior doesn't reflect the pillars of character.
Set up a peer-tutoring program. Tutoring may occur during, before, or after school and may feature students working with partners in the same grade or another.
Increase the number of jobs students may perform at school. Some ideas include making morning and afternoon announcements; helping the school nurse; assisting in the library, office, or other locations; turning in attendance forms and carrying out other daily tasks between classrooms and the office or cafeteria; and serving as safety patrols.
Offer training to youth leaders--such as class officers, student council members, and committees--and explain what is expected of them in those roles. Highlight the leaders' responsibilities to their fellow students as examples of good character.
4.    Fairness
How many times have students told you that school or classroom rules are not fair? Be ready to counter their complaints by basing rules on the traits of character. When appropriate, students can help to design the rules and choose the consequences of violations.
Focus on and reward academic integrity. Encourage students to complete all of their assignments and do their own work, and show them how to properly cite the ideas of others. Consider an "Honest Abe" or "Worker Bee" award for those who do their individual best.
How do your school's sports teams and other groups reflect on your school? Have coaches and supervisors share their character and team building suggestions.
Instruct students who generate the school paper to seek journalistic integrity--attention to detail, fairness, accuracy, and balance--in what they report. Editorials and articles should be clear in what is fact and what is opinion. The writers should proudly put their names on every article they publish.
5.    Caring
The Random Acts of Kindness Foundation provides Educator Resources including project ideas such as RAK Sightings!, which gives students and staff the opportunity to secretly submit students' random acts of kindness and then rewards the doers with special certificates.
Have students identify a need in the school or community and develop a plan to help. This might take the form of a book and magazine drive for a retirement home, crocheting hats and blankets for newborns, or another project that displays care for others.
Structure volunteer programs within the school, such as opportunities for students to help out in life skills classes, read or tutor young children, assist in the computer lab, aid students in the library, provide support to students who are recovering from an injury or dealing with a medical condition, or gather work for students who miss school.
Collect donations for a worthy organization, preferably one that serves children. One such group is The Smile Train, which arranges for free surgeries for poor children who have cleft lip and palate. The students might conduct a recycling project, hold a penny drive, do work for donations, or take pledges for biking or walking or dancing.
6.    Citizenship
Follow the news. Share stories from your own community and the national news headlines about people who possess the character traits. Ask local leaders to address the students. The Giraffe Heroes Web site has a wonderful collection of Giraffe Profiles that is rich in stories of real people who personify good character and would be an ideal library from which to select tales to share with students.
Plan, or have your students organize, patriotic events. The Cleveland County Schools suggest a "Red, White, and Blue Day" and other events could be held around patriotic holidays. You might schedule a concert that features patriotic musical selections by a band or chorus. Readings of quotes or stories about the presidents can also be shared as part of the school day, particularly near the time of President's Day.
Involve students in beautification and/or environmental projects around the school and in the community. Local environmental organizations might invite students to join in water testing or ask for their assistance in constructing bat houses or bird nesting boxes, cleaning community parks, and more.
Help community members who are in need with clothing and/or food drives. Some children's clothing may be reserved for students within the school who may need it.

source : http://www.educationworld.com

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20 April 2017

Madrasah in different countries in the world

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Pakistan
Madrasah in Pakistan had been major issues after 9/11 attacked which is madrasas in Pakistan are blamed for terrorism and promoting Islamic military because the perpetrators of 9/11 was a student of a Pakistani Madras. However, Madrasa in Pakistan defend themselves and against the allegation of terrorism, the curriculums of the madrasa modified form of the Dars-I Nizami which is comprise Arabic grammar and literature, logic rhetoric, and mathematic among the rational sciences(maqulat) the student study so many various of thing in Madrasa in Pakistan such as medicine, and astronomy but the one aspect of reaching in the Madrasa which has received scant attention is that the students are taught the art of debate(munazarah)
Economically, the Madrasa in Pakistan are generally financed by voluntary charity, and this is provided by bazaar businessmen and other people who believe of earning great merit by contributing to build Madrasa in order the help poor people and can go to Madrasa to study, because in the Pakistan 48,95% student have economical problems that why they choose the Madrasa the best way to continue study because madrasa provide very cheap school fee and even free for the people who really poor and cannot earn money to go to school.

China
China today has larger Muslims and its divided in to 10 ethnics groups known as the Hui, which the most assimilated the major issues of the madrasah is that china Muslims school emphasis on girl schools and the most things is the linkages and networks of Chinese Muslims students who have travelled abroad to learn about Islam and further the Islamic education in order to examining their experiences of living amongst other Muslims with their different societies and communities, and as a result, the potential impact of going abroad and learning about Islam is really changes their communities upon their return home in china and they be able to teach in established Islamic colleges in china. However no longer that much needed for Chinese muslims to study abroad as there are now enough teachers with sufficient training has becomes more attractive for students to just continue their advanced Islamic education in China. The place where chinese study abroad is separated in general,such as, Arab, Iran, Yunnan, Malaysia as well and etc. but the major problems after their coming back to china is dispute things among them, because what they learn in different foreign countries such as in Asia, Arab and Europe are different method ways, so they feels that what they had learned in Arab is best thing to show in their country. In facts, the other students will says so and admire their knowledges is better, even tough, they not come to Arab to learn about Islam because they believe that what have they learned is best way to follow as a result this has being disputed among them

Indonesia
Madrasah in Indonesia is variant from the others Madrasa in Pakistan and India, in Indonesia Madrasa also called as Pesantren or Pondok pesantren the meaning is Islamic boarding school where students are living in dormitory that provided by Pesantren itself, the methods of learning in Pesantren is also quite different and it divide into section are Modern systems and Salafi systems of education (traditional). The modern systems methods is the students are not only study strongly about Islam but also they can study formally school such as mathematic, biology, chemical and geography and etc, and the salafi system much more discuses about Islam such as learning deeply about Quran and Hadist and the system of learning likely seating and listening to teacher, and making circle as well (halaqah). The Pesantren in Indonesia has become a centre of learning and da‘wa. It has played an important role in Indonesia because it is the oldest system of learning and education. Before the modern education system was introduced by the Dutch, the pesantren was the only educational institution available in Indonesia. It should be noted of course that the pesantren in Indonesia still plays its role as an education centre, but it has also to compete with modern secular educational institutions. In addition, the teaching methods in Indonesian pesantrens followed those of mecca and cairo and the curriculum was very similar to that of other regions where the safi`i school is followed.)

Egypt
The name of the madrasa is from Arabic language mean that “place of study” the most famous the Islamic seminary or Islamic colleges of Islamic studies is called AL-Azhar is an educational institute in Cairo, Egypt that founded in 970-972 as a Madrasa. alongside the Egyptian students who are studying at al-azhar there are also many others students from various Islamic and European countries, however, the foreign students have exactly the same rights as the Egyptian students. Al azhar produce an islam that is far from extremist interpretation, however it also possible to interpret the middle way metaphor in the sense that al azhar as a multilayered and complex institution is able to entertain many religious tendencies and stabilize most of them within its own territory. The interesting thing of al azhar is al- azhar education may be part of the family tradition and provides to its members a strong sense of religious and institutional identity, that why some of the family lovely to sent their children to al –azhar and student would love to study there as education systems is very good and guaranteed for student. Student after graduate from al-azhar soon they can get high respect among the society and be asked to teach in some of university in their home country.

Iran
In Iran the systems learning of Islamic education is quite different from the other because in Iran where the majority of the population is Shia. (believe that following the prophet Muhammad`s saw, death leadership should have passed directly to his cousin/son in law, Ali). In Iran the seminaries successful evaded state intervention while claiming to be, after Najaf, the seat of highest learning and religious authority for the shia. And in Iran before 1917 Islamic revolution woman had no official mean accessing seminary education, however, Jamiat Alzahra is begin in the academic year 1985/86 and all the existing maktabs (women`s seminary) in Qom were merged because before maktabs often limited such as Maktab-I Narjis in Mashad, the established of this seminaries for women is because women’s acquisition of the right of study, and after they achieve their knowledge of Islam they should do propaganda or we say in Islamic word is Dakwah. the other issues is the founder of the women’s seminaries are usually clerics who are eager to set up their own seminaries in their hometowns in order to reach out to the female population in the area, this is often star with small class or just usual like halakah, which is 15 or 30 students which is one teacher and one administrator.

Lebanon
In Lebanon the hawza is refers to a new type of religious seminary and this is quite different from the traditional Lebanese Madrasa because its more institutionalize and bureaucratized, the curriculum of study was first founded in the 1970s, Lebanese hawzas did not attempt to coordinate the activities of their director and funders, who resisted the idea of a unified or standardized policy for all. However the students who study in hawzas is standardized and the students are cannot choose their courses freely. Because the curriculum reflects the party`s ideology, this is unlike seminaries in Iraq and Iran where the students are have a choice of classes teaching varying approaches and schools of thought. The students of Hawzas spend four years of study and training as opposed to the six years requirement at najafand qom, however, few hizballah students they pursue themselves to go to highest or advanced study in qom which are they comprise 15 to 20% of the total number of Lebanese students trabeling to iran for al-bahth al kharij in the 1980s and early 1990s, in hazballah`S structure forward the disciplines and hierarchy to the hawzas with the aim of controlling the number of those who rise to the top on the basis of social demand and the overall benefit to Shi`s society itself.

Conclusion
(Communalities, different is style objectives, mission, levels of education, types of students and relationship between state and society)
In general, Madrasa, Islamic seminaries and Islamic schools are the same meaning what I mean is because the purpose is related of school studies and related to Islamic education by focusing study about Islam, The Arabic word Madrasa (plural Madaris) generally has two meanings first is in its more common literal and in daily spoken it simply means “school” second is in its secondary meaning, a Madrasa is an educational institution offering instruction in Islamic subjects including, but not limited to, the Quran, the sayings or (hadith) of the Prophet Muhammad, jurisprudence (fiqh), and any law in Islam. But this could be different of interpretations of madrasa according each countries in the world such as, in Indonesia Madrasa divided to three kind of madrasa first is madrasa ibtidaiyah (beginning or primary of school) can be interpreted as primary school and the second is madrasah tsanawiyah or secondary school and the last is madrasah Aliya can be interpreted as senior high school and its promotes an Islamic base curriculum even though the secular of education also provided as well but the focus is to introduce the students to know about Islam in basic. On other hand, in Indonesia there is private and special school for deeply learning about Islam called Pesantren or Pondok Pesantren are boarding school Most ‘pesantren’ provide housing or dormitory living at low or no cost for the students (Santri). The two types of educations systems are conducted throughout the day. Students in pesantren have almost 20 hours activities starting from early Morning Prayer starting at 4 am its depend on local prying area to midnight where they ended the evening with a study group in the dormitory in the pesantren the students also study and join formal school such as study biology, mathematics, geography and etc not only religious studies.In many other countries such as Egypt and Lebanon, madrasa refers to any educational institution sponsor by state, private, secular, or religious In Pakistan which is also madrasa commonly refers to Islamic religious schools. This can be a significant because an analysis of “madrasa reform” could have different implications within various cultural, political, and geographic contexts. However, the purpose of the madrasa or Islamic seminaries or Islamic schools is intended to prepare future Islamic religious scholars for student that start for the beginning by knowing basic about Islam and it also have kind of level of studies such as women seminaries system in Iran has preparatory course 3 years general course level 1 2 years level 2 two years special course level 3 three years and level 4 three years and last is extra special course which is level 5 at least 3 years and level 6 at least 4 years.

sumber : https://konnichiwadotcom.wordpress.com

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Science : Contributions from Islam

Astronomy
Muslim have always had a special interest in astronomy. The moon and the sun are of vital importance in the daily life of every Muslim. By the moon, Muslim determine the beginning and the end of the month in their lunar calendar. By the sun, the Muslims calculate the times for prayer and fasting, it is also by means of astronomy that Muslims can determine the precise direction of the Qiblah, to face the ka’bah in makkah during prayer
 The most precise solar calendar, superior to the Julian, is the Jilali, devised under the supervision of Umar Khayyam.

The Quran contains many references to astronomy:
 "And it is He who created the night and the day and the sun and the moon; all [heavenly bodies] in an orbit are swimming."
[Noble Quran 21:33]

These references, and the injunctions to learn, inspired the early Muslim scholars to study the heavens. They integrated the earlier works of the Indians, Persians and Greeks into a new synthesis.

Ptolemy's Almagest (the title as we know it today is actually Arabic) was translated, studied and criticized. Many new stars were discovered, as we see in their Arabic names - Algol, Deneb, Betelgeuse, Rigel, Aldebaran. Astronomical tables were compiled, among them the Toledan tables, which were used by Copernicus, Tycho Brahe and Kepler.



Also compiled were almanacs - another Arabic term. Other terms from Arabic are zenith, nadir, Aledo, azimuth.

Muslim astronomers were the first to establish observatories, like the one built at Mugharah by Hulagu, the son of Genghis Khan, in Persia, and they invented instruments such as the quadrant and astrolabe, which led to advances not only in astronomy but in oceanic navigation, contributing to the European age of exploration.

Geography
Muslim scholars paid great attention to geography. In fact, the Muslims' great concern for geography originated with their religion.

The Quran encourages people to travel throughout the earth to see God's signs and patterns everywhere. Islam also requires each Muslim to have at least enough knowledge of geography to know the direction of the Qiblah (the position of the Ka'bah in Makkah) in order to pray five times a day.



Muslims were also used to taking long journeys to conduct trade as well as to make the Hajj and spread their religion. The far-flung Islamic empire enabled scholar-explorers to compile large amounts of geographical and climatic information from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

Among the most famous names in the field of geography, even in the West, are Ibn Khaldun and Ibn Batuta, renowned for their written accounts of their extensive explorations.

In 1166, Al-Idrisi, the well-known Muslim scholar who served the Sicilian court, produced very accurate maps, including a world map with all the continents and their mountains, rivers and famous cities. Al-Muqdishi was the first geographer to produce accurate maps in color.

Spain was ruled by Muslims under the banner of Islam for over 700 years. By the 15th century of the Gregorian calendar the ruler-ship of Islam had been seated in Spain and Muslims had established centers of learning which commanded respect all over the known world at that time. There were no "Dark Ages" such the rest of Europe experienced for the Muslims in Spain and those who lived there with them. In January of 1492 Muslim Spain capitulated to Catholic Rome under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. By July of the same year, Muslims were instrumental in helping navigate Christopher Columbus to the Caribbean South of Florida.

It was, moreover, with the help of Muslim navigators and their inventions that Magellan was able to traverse the Cape of Good Hope, and Da Gamma and Columbus had Muslim navigators on board their ships.

Humanity
Seeking knowledge is obligatory in Islam for every Muslim, man and woman. The main sources of Islam, the Quran and the Sunnah (Prophet Muhammad's traditions), encourage Muslims to seek knowledge and be scholars, since this is the best way for people to know Allah (God), to appreciate His wondrous creations and be thankful for them.

Muslims have always been eager to seek knowledge, both religious and secular, and within a few years of Muhammad's mission, a great civilization sprang up and flourished. The outcome is shown in the spread of Islamic universities; Al-Zaytunah in Tunis, and Al-Azhar in Cairo go back more than 1,000 years and are the oldest existing universities in the world. Indeed, they were the models for the first European universities, such as Bologna, Heidelberg, and the Sorbonne. Even the familiar academic cap and gown originated at Al-Azhar University.

Muslims made great advances in many different fields, such as geography, physics, chemistry, mathematics, medicine, pharmacology, architecture, linguistics and astronomy. Algebra and the Arabic numerals were introduced to the world by Muslim scholars. The astrolabe, the quadrant, and other navigational devices and maps were developed by Muslim scholars and played an important role in world progress, most notably in Europe's age of exploration.

Muslim scholars studied the ancient civilizations from Greece and Rome to China and India. The works of Aristotle, Ptolemy, Euclid and others were translated into Arabic. Muslim scholars and scientists then added their own creative ideas, discoveries and inventions, and finally transmitted this new knowledge to Europe, leading directly to the Renaissance. Many scientific and medical treatises, having been translated into Latin, were standard text and reference books as late as the 17th and 18th centuries.

Mathematics
Muslim mathematicians excelled in geometry, as can be seen in their graphic arts, and it was the great Al-Biruni (who excelled also in the fields of natural history, even geology and mineralogy) who established trigonometry as a distinct branch of mathematics. Other Muslim mathematicians made significant progress in number theory.



It is interesting to note that Islam so strongly urges mankind to study and explore the universe. For example, the Noble Quran states:

"We (Allah) will show you (mankind) Our signs/patterns in the horizons/universe and in yourselves until you are convinced that the revelation is the truth."
[Noble Quran 41:53]

This invitation to explore and search made Muslims interested in astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, and the other sciences, and they had a very clear and firm understanding of the correspondences among geometry, mathematics, and astronomy.

The Muslims invented the symbol for zero (The word "cipher" comes from Arabic sifr), and they organized the numbers into the decimal system - base 10. Additionally, they invented the symbol to express an unknown quantity, i.e. variables like x.



The first great Muslim mathematician, Al-Khawarizmi, invented the subject of algebra (al-Jabr), which was further developed by others, most notably Umar Khayyam. Al-Khawarizmi's work, in Latin translation, brought the Arabic numerals along with the mathematics to Europe, through Spain. The word "algorithm" is derived from his name.

Medicine
In Islam, the human body is a source of appreciation, as it is created by Almighty Allah (God). How it functions, how to keep it clean and safe, how to prevent diseases from attacking it or cure those diseases, have been important issues for Muslims.



Ibn Sina (d. 1037), better known to the West as Avicenna, was perhaps the greatest physician until the modern era. His famous book, Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb, remained a standard textbook even in Europe, for over 700 years. Ibn Sina's work is still studied and built upon in the East.

Prophet Muhammad himself urged people to "take medicines for your diseases", as people at that time were reluctant to do so. He also said,


"God created no illness, except that He has established for it a cure, except for old age. When the antidote is applied, the patient will recover with the permission of God."


Since the religion did not forbid it, Muslim scholars used human cadavers to study anatomy and physiology and to help their students understand how the body functions. This empirical study enabled surgery to develop very quickly.


Al-Razi, known in the West as Rhazes, the famous physician and scientist, (d. 932) was one of the greatest physicians in the world in the Middle Ages. He stressed empirical observation and clinical medicine and was unrivalled as a diagnostician. He also wrote a treatise on hygiene in hospitals. Abul-Qasim Az-Zahrawi was a very famous surgeon in the eleventh century, known in Europe for his work, Concession (Kitab al-Tasrif).


Other significant contributions were made in pharmacology, such as Ibn Sina's Kitab al-Shifa' (Book of Healing), and in public health. Every major city in the Islamic world had a number of excellent hospitals, some of them teaching hospitals, and many of them were specialized for particular diseases, including mental and emotional. The Ottomans were particularly noted for their building of hospitals and for the high level of hygiene practiced in them.

Sumber : http://www.scienceislam.com/muslims_science.php

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16 April 2017

Madrasah Diniyyah

Sejarah Islam di Indonesia memperlihatkan bahwa pendidikan keagamaan di sini tumbuh dan berkembang seiring dengan dinamika kehidupan masyarakat Muslim. Selama kurun waktu yang panjang, pendidikan keagamaan Islam berjalan secara tradisi, berupa pengajian al-Qur’an dan pengajian kitab, dengan metode yang dikenalkan (terutama di Jawa) dengan nama sorogan, bandongan dan halaqah. Tempat belajar yang digunakan umumnya adalah ruang-ruang masjid atau tempat-tempat shalat “umum” yang dalam istilah setempat disebut: surau, dayah, meunasah, langgar, rangkang, atau mungkin nama lainnya.
Perubahan kelembagaan paling penting terjadi setelah berkembangnya sistem klasikal, yang awalnya diperkenalkan oleh pemerintah kolonial melalui sekolah-sekolah umum yang didirikannya di berbagai wilayah Nusantara. Di Sumatera Barat pendidikan keagamaan klasikal itu dilaporkan dipelopori oleh Zainuddin Labai el-Junusi (1890-1924), yang pada tahun 1915 mendirikan sekolah agama sore yang diberi nama “Madrasah Diniyah” (Diniyah School, al-Madrasah al-Diniyah) (Noer 1991:49; Steenbrink 1986:44). Sistem klasikal seperti rintisan Zainuddin berkembang pula di wilayah Nusantara lainnya, terutama yang mayoritas penduduknya Muslim. Di kemudian hari lembaga-lembaga pendidikan keagamaan itulah yang menjadi cikal bakal dari madrasah-madrasah formal yang berada pada jalur sekolah sekarang. Meskipun sulit untuk memastikan kapan madrasah didirikan dan madrasah mana yang pertama kali berdiri, namun Departemen Agama (dahulu Kementerian Agama) mengakui bahwa setelah Indonesia merdeka sebagian besar sekolah agama berpola madrasah diniyahlah yang berkembang menjadi mad-rasah-madrasah formal (Asrohah 1999:193). Dengan perubahan tersebut berubah pula status kelembagaannya, dari jalur “luar sekolah” yang dikelola penuh oleh masyarakat menjadi “sekolah” di bawah pembinaan Departemen Agama.
Meskipun demikian tercatat masih banyak pula madrasah diniyah yang mempertahankan ciri khasnya yang semula, meskipun dengan status sebagai pendidikan keagamaan luar sekolah. Pada masa yang lebih kemudian, mengacu pada Peraturan Menteri Agama Nomor 13 Tahun 1964, tumbuh pula madrasah-madrasah diniyah tipe baru, sebagai pendidikan tambahan berjenjang bagi murid-murid sekolah umum. Madrasah diniyah itu diatur mengikuti tingkat-tingkat pendi-dikan sekolah umum, yaitu Madrasah Diniyah Awwaliyah untuk murid Sekolah Dasar, Wustha untuk murid Sekolah Lanjutan Tingkat Pertama, dan ‘Ulya untuk murid Sekolah Lanjutan Tingkat Atas. Madrasah diniyah dalam hal itu dipandang sebagai lembaga pendidikan keagamaan klasikal jalur luar sekolah bagi murid-murid sekolah umum. Data EMIS (yang harus diperlakukan sebagai data sementara karena ketepatan-nya dapat dipersoalkan) mencatat jumlah madrasah diniyah di Indonesia pada tahun ajaran 2005/2006 seluruhnya 15.579 buah dengan jumlah murid 1.750.010 orang.
Berdasarkan Undang-undang Pendidikan dan Peraturan Pemerintah. Madrasah Diniyah adalah bagian terpadu dari pendidikan nasional untuk memenuhi hasrat masyarakat tentang pendidikan agama. Madrasah Diniyah termasuk ke dalam pendidikan yang dilembagakan dan bertujuan untuk mempersiapkan peserta didik dalam penguasaan terhadap pengetahuan agama Islam.
UU No. 20 Tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional yang ditindaklanjuti dengan disyahkannya PP No. 55 Tahun 2007 tentang pendidikan agama dan keagamaan memang menjadi babak baru bagi dunia pendidikan agama dan keagamaan di Indonesia. Karena itu berarti negara telah menyadari keanekaragaman model dan bentuk pendidikan yang ada di bumi nusantara ini.
Keberadaan peraturan perundangan tersebut seolah menjadi ”tongkat penopang” bagi madrasah diniyah yang sedang mengalami krisis identitas. Karena selama ini, penyelenggaraan pendidikan diniyah ini tidak banyak diketahui bagaimana pola pengelolaannya. Tapi karakteristiknya yang khas menjadikan pendidikan ini layak untuk dimunculkan dan dipertahankan eksistensinya.
Secara umum, setidaknya sudah ada beberapa karakteristik pendidikan diniyah di bumi nusantara ini. Pertama, Pendidikan Diniyah Takmiliyah (suplemen) yang berada di tengah masyarakat dan tidak berada dalam lingkaran pengaruh pondok pesantren. Pendidikan diniyah jenis ini betul-betul merupakan kreasi dan swadaya masyarakat, yang diperuntukkan bagi anak-anak yang menginginkan pengetahuan agama di luar jalur sekolah formal. Kedua, pendidikan diniyah yang berada dalam lingkaran pondok pesantren tertentu, dan bahkan menjadi urat nadi kegiatan pondok pesantren. Ketiga, pendidikan keagamaan yang diselenggarakan sebagai pelengkap (komplemen) pada pendidikan formal di pagi hari. Keempat, pendidikan diniyah yang diselenggarakan di luar pondok pesantren tapi diselenggarakan secara formal di pagi hari, sebagaimana layaknya sekolah formal.
Ciri-ciri Madrasah Diniyah
Dengan meninjau secara pertumbuhan dan banyaknya aktifitas yang diselenggarakan sub-sistem Madrasah Diniyah, maka dapat dikatakan ciri-ciri ekstrakurikuler Madrasah Diniyah adalah sebagai berikut:
  1. Madrasah Diniyah merupakan pelengkap dari pendidikan formal.
  2. Madrasah Diniyah merupakan spesifikasi sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan  tidak memerlukan syarat yang ketat serta dapat diselenggarakan dimana saja.
  3. Madrasah Diniyah tidak dibagi atas jenjang atau kelas-kelas secara ketat.
  4. Madrasah Diniyah dalam materinya bersifat praktis dan khusus.
  5. Madrasah Diniyah waktunya relatif singkat, dan warga didiknya tidak harus sama.
  6. Madrasah Diniyah mempunyai metode pengajaran yang bermacammacam.
Kurikulum yang digunakan Madrasah Diniyah
Berdasarkan Undang-undang Pendidikan dna Peraturan pemerintah no 73 tahun 1991 pada pasal 1 ayat 1 disebutkan “Penyelenggaraan pendidikan diluar sekolah boleh dilembagakan dan boleh tidak dilembagakan”. Dengan jenis “pendidikan Umum” (psl 3. ayat.1). sedangkan kurikulum dapat tertulis dan tertulis (pasl. 12 ayat 2). Bahwa Madrasah DIniyah adalah bagian terpadu dari system pendidikan nasional yang diselenggarakan pada jalur pendidikan luar sekolah untuk memenuhi hasrat masyarakat tentang pendidikan agama. Madarsah Diniyah termasuk kelompok pendidikan keagamaan jalur luar sekolah yang dilembagakan dan bertujuan untuk mempersiapkan peserta didik menguasai pengetahuan agama Islam, yang dibina oleh Menteri Agama (PP 73, Pasal 22 ayat 3). Oleh karena itu, maka Menteri Agama  d/h Direktorat Jenderal Pembinaan Kelembagaan Agama Islam menetapkan Kurikulum Madrasah Diniyah dalam rangka membantu masyarakat mencapai tujuan pendidikan yang terarah, sistematis dan terstruktur. Meskipun demikian, masyarakat tetap memiliki keleluasaan unutk mengembangkan isi pendidikan, pendekatan dan muatan kurikulum sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan leingkungan madrasah.
Madrasah diniyah mempunyai tiga tingkatan yakni : Diniyah Awaliyah, Diniyah Wustha dan Diniyah Ulya. Madrasah DIniah Awaliyah berlangsung 4 tahun (4 tingkatan), dan Wustha 2 tahun (2 tingkatan). Input Siswa Madrasah Diniyah Awaliyah diasumsikan adalah siswa yang belakar pada sekolah Dasar dan SMP/SMU.
Sebagai bagian dari pendidikan luar sekolah, Madrasah Diniyah bertujuan :
  1. Melayani warga belajar dapat tumbuh dan berkembangn sedini mungkin dan sepanjang hayatnya guna meningkatkan martabat dan mutu kehidupanya.
  2. Membina warga belajar agar memiliki pengetahuan, keterampilan dan sikap mental yang diperluakan untuk mengembangkan diri, bekerja mencari nafkah atau melanjutkan ketingkat dan /atau jenjang yang lebih tinggi, dan
  3. Memenuhi kebutuhan belajar masyarakat yang tidak dapat dipenuhi dalam jalur pendidikan sekolah (TP 73 Pasal.2 ayat 2 s.d 3).
Untuk menumbuh kembangkan ciri madrasah sebagai satuan pendidikan yang bernapaskan Islam, amka tujuan madrasah diniyah dilengkapi dengan “memberikan bekla kemampuan dasar dan keterampilan dibidang agama Islam untuk mengembangkan kehidupannya sebagai pribadi muslim, anggota masyarakat dan warga Negara”.
Dalam program pengajaran ada bebarapa bidang studi yang diajarkan seperti Qur’an Hadits, Aqidah Akhlak, Fiqih, Sejarah Kebudayaan Islam, Bahasa Arab, dan Praktek Ibadah.
Dalam pelajaran Qur’an-Hadits santri diarahkan kepada pemahaman dan penghayatan santri tentang isi yang terkandung dalam qur’an dan hadits. Mata pelajaran aqidah akhlak berfumgsi untuk memberikan pengetahuan dan bimbingan kepada santri agar meneladani kepribadian nabi Muhammad SAW, sebagai Rasul dan hamba Allah, meyakini dan menjadikan Rukun Iman sebagai pedoman berhubungan dengan Tuhannya, sesame manusia dengan alam sekitar, Mata pelajaran Fiqih diarahkan untuk mendorong, membimbing, mengembangkan dan membina santri untuk mengetahui memahami dan menghayati syariat Islam. Sejarah Kebudayaan Islam merupakan mata pelajaran yang diharapkan dapat memperkaya pengalaman santri dengan keteladanan dari Nabi Muhammad SAW dan sahabat dan tokoh Islam. Bahasa Arab sangat penting untuk penunjang pemahaman santri terhadap ajaran agama Islam, mengembangkan ilmu pengetahuan Islam dan hubungan antar bangsa degan pendekatan komunikatif. Dan praktek ibadah bertujuan melaksanakan ibadah dan syariat agama Islam.
Kurikulum Madrasah Diniyah pada dasarnya bersifat fleksibel dan akomodatif. Oleh karena itu, pengembangannya dapat dilakukan oleh Departemen Agama Pusat Kantor Wilayat/Depag Propinsi dan Kantor Departemen Agama Kabupaten/Kotamadya atau oleh pengelola kegiatan pendidikan sendiri. Prinsip pokok untuk mengembangkan tersebut ialah tidak menyalahi aturan perundang-undangan yang berlaku tentang pendidikan secara umum, peraturan pemerintah, keputusan Menteri Agama dan kebijakan lainnya yang berkaitan dengan penyelenggaraan madrasah diniyah.
Administrasi Madrasah Diniyah
Administrasi Madrasah Diniyah ialah segala usaha bersama untuk mendayagunkan sumber-sumber, baik personil maupun materil secara efektif dan efisien guna menunjang tercapainya tujuan pendidikan di Madrasah Diniyah secara optimal.
      Prinsip Umum Administrasi Madrasah Diniyah
  1. bersifat praktis, dapat dilaksanakan sesuai dengan kondisi dan situasi nyata di madrasah DIniyah.
  2. Berfungsi sebagai sumber informasi bagi peningkatan pengelolaan pendidikan dan proses belajar mengajar.
  3. Dilaksanakan dengan suatu system mekanisme kerja yang menunjang realisasi pelaksanaan kurikulum.
      Ruang Lingkup
  1. Secara makro administrasi pendidikan di Madrasah Diniyah mencakup :
    1. kurikulum
    2. Warga belajar
    3. Ketenagaan
    4. Keuangan
    5. Saran/prasarana/gedung dan perlengkapan lainnya
    6. Hubungan kerjasama dengan masyarakat
  2. Dilihat dari Proses kegiatan pengelolaan dan perlengkapan, maka administrasi pendidikan mencakup :
    1. Kegiatan merencakanan (planning)
    2. Kegiatan mengorganisasikan (Organizing)
    3. Kegiatan mengarahkan (Directing)
    4. Kegiatan Mengkoordinasikan (Coordinating)
    5. Kegiatan mengawasi (Controling), dan
    6. Kegiatan evaluasi
      Peranan Pimpinan
Dalam pelaksanaan administrasi termasuk administrasi pendidikn diperlukan seorang pimpinan yang berpandangan luas dan berkemampuan, baik dilihat dari segi pengetahuan, keterampilan maupun dari sikap.
Hal ini diperukan, karena pimpinan harus menciptakan dan melaksanakan hubungan yang baik antara :
  1. Kepala madrasah dengan guru
  2. Guru dengan guru
  3. guru dengan penjaga madrasah
  4. Kepala Madrasah, guru dan masyarakat
Dalam pengelolaan administrasi ada beberapa kegiatan yang dapat menunjang pelaksanaan kurikum diantaranya :
  1. Kegiatan mengatur proses belajar mengajar
  2. Kegiatan mengatur murid (warga belajar)
  3. Kegiatan mengatur kepegawaian
  4. Kegiatan mengatur gedung dna perlengkapan madrasah
  5. Kegiatan mengatur keuangan
  6. Kegiatan mengatur hubungan Madrasah dengan masyarakat.
  7. Tugas serta tanggungjawab guru dan kepala madrasah
  8. Mengembangkan dan menyempurnakan sejumlah instrument administrasi madrasah diniyah.
KESIMPULAN
Madrasah diniyah adalah salah satu lembaga pendidikan non formal yang memiliki peranan penting dalam pengembangan pembelajaran agama Islam. Dalam madrasah diniyah yang merupakan lembaga yang memiliki paying hokum yang legal tentunya kurikulum sudah diset oleh pemerintah yang tentu tidak secara baku. Dalam artian pelaksana pendidikan bisa mengekplorasi pembelajaran yang bersipat penyesuaian dengan lingkungannya. Penyesuaian kurikulum itu akan dilakukan pada madrasah diniyah di semua tingkatan: ula (awal), wusto (menangah), hingga ala (atas).
Dalam keadministrasian meliputi beberapa urusan diantaranya: urusan administrasi, urusab Kurikuler, Urusan kewargaan belajar, urusan saran dan prasrana, dan urusan Humas
Dalam hal keorganisasiannya meliputi Kepala Madrasah Diniyah, Wali Kelas, Guru Pembimbing, BP3, guru mata pelajaran, tenaga kependidikanlainnya.
Untuk menjadi Madrasah Diniyah yang ideal maka yang sangat diperlukan adalah memperhatikan keadministrasian yang mapan, kurikulum yang sudah dibakukan oleh pemerintah yang ditambahkan dengan ektrakulikuler yang disesuaikan dengan lingkungan belajar.
Sumber  http://madindarunnajah.blogspot.co.id 
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